According to the scientists who uphold the Recent Origin of Man Theory, some of the L3 haplogroup migrated from East Africa into the nearby East (Asia). This is believed to have occurred some 70 000 years ago. Because only the females of the L3 lineage are found anywhere outside of the African continent, it is believed that it was a very small population that actually participated in the migration. In fact, only about 150 humans, of the total population of up to 5000 in ancient Africa, are thought to have left Africa and moved to Asia.
Other researchers believe that there were two migrations at this time. One involved haplogroup M, who crossed the Red Sea (which was much shallower and narrower then) and followed the coast all the way to India. Evidence of this course is believed to have been lost when the sea levels rose during the Halocene era. The other group, haplogroup N, are believed to have followed the Nile River until they crossed Sinai into Asia. Some of the members of this haplogroup proceeded into Europe, while others stayed in various areas of Asia. One of the reasons for believing this is that haplogroup N is predominant in Europe, while the M group is completely absent there. Both are very rarely found in Africa. This may, however, also be due to genetic mutations.
Once these groups had spread into Asia, they continued to migrate to all corners of the earth. By 50 000 years ago, humans had moved into the southern areas of Asia. 10 000 years later, they had crossed the oceans and begun occupying Australia. It took another 10 000 years to inhabit East Asia. The Africans that had gone into India are still found in Pakistan and India. However, they have mutated to such an extent that this particular region experiences major diversity in this haplogroup, of which the Indian population makes up about 60%.
Some of those of the M haplogroup are Andamanese, having come from the Asian inhabitants of ancient times, according to some scholars. This proves that those migrants that took the coastal route to India proceeded right through to Thailand and on to Papua New Guinea along the shore. The dark skin colour of these modern men is one of the identifying traits that remain in the genetic codes of these humans from ancient times.
While those scientists that have researched and followed this theory present some solid evidence, there are many researchers who hold very different opinions. In their continued research, scientists and anthropologists try to weigh up the DNA evidence (of which there are limited resources) with fossilised findings of ancient man and his implements. Each puzzle piece is carefully considered and placed within a much larger picture in the ongoing attempt to piece together the complex mosaic that is the origin of humankind.